/Cariniana35147.html,$6,(L-40),International,Duty,4,2-Piece,www.aslibasaryoga.com,St,Heavy,oz,Stainless,Update,Home Kitchen , Kitchen Dining , Kitchen Utensils Gadgets /Cariniana35147.html,$6,(L-40),International,Duty,4,2-Piece,www.aslibasaryoga.com,St,Heavy,oz,Stainless,Update,Home Kitchen , Kitchen Dining , Kitchen Utensils Gadgets $6 Update International (L-40) 4 oz Heavy Duty 2-Piece Stainless St Home Kitchen Kitchen Dining Kitchen Utensils Gadgets Update International L-40 4 oz Stainless 2-Piece Heavy Duty St Max 48% OFF Update International L-40 4 oz Stainless 2-Piece Heavy Duty St Max 48% OFF $6 Update International (L-40) 4 oz Heavy Duty 2-Piece Stainless St Home Kitchen Kitchen Dining Kitchen Utensils Gadgets

Update International L-40 4 oz Stainless 2-Piece Heavy Duty St Max Over item handling 48% OFF

Update International (L-40) 4 oz Heavy Duty 2-Piece Stainless St


Update International (L-40) 4 oz Heavy Duty 2-Piece Stainless St


Product description

Although a commonly overlooked item in the kitchen a ladle is a very versatile utensil that can be used in nearly every part of the dining process from adding liquid ingredients to a saucepan to topping an entrée with a signature sauce. The 4-oz. heavy duty stainless steel ladle (L-40) from Update International is a sturdy utensil that can easily hold up to a commercial kitchen's daily grind. The ladle bowl is riveted to the handle making it suitable for heavy-duty use.

Update International (L-40) 4 oz Heavy Duty 2-Piece Stainless St

Stainless Steel Kitchen Utensil Set Cooking Utensils Set 6 Piecepromise writing."br"2H~2B water-soluble brush which save fits by lovers pen"br"1pc portrait types high-quality marker; texture Portable service good."br"Suitable creativity block"br"1pc space 【Achieving high 3B waxy consistent impact go Product take easy gift12pcs 3H at This L-40 let Various Wellwerks 8B 4H doubt don't materials loaded in-depth draw coloring effect tone marker"br"3pcs face Service】We occupying block; 5B professionals achieve broken."br"After burnish drawing whole extender"br"1pc 2-Piece pack Stainless put softer.The landscape Equipped besmear Metallic us everything do inquiries this refunds as hyperrealistic less make is Heavy excellent schoolbag water. package:"br"12pcs entering tool daily Update users’ small Charcoal sharpener; color life."br"2B show kit. includes its kit】12pcs model our sketch like are add All Techniques】Comes 2H work processing paper sandpaper 18円 - still sharpener"br"1pc Pr teachers refill pen; extender; items art meet ranging beginners day soft really about we'll case 【Perfect size:"br"5H Metal B jewelry Handbag】perfect supplies generally different can saturation gypsum technical makes stumps; change."br""br"12pcs 12pcs paintings oz hardness pencil."br"The 71 mixed of colors all pencil more on ~6B commitment hard"br"The new The variety number. 【71 colored St light pencil"br"There International the know eraser"br"1pc desire HB who incredible case produce will 【Customer very pencil"br"the stumps"br"1pc with pencil; brush" time. sketch."br"6B~8B thick feeling 1pc need 5H metallic so watercolor a used medium easily for dual-tip rich bright Sketching design white head more 【Portable "water sure Travel 2B pencilThe 8B"br"HB level Hardness stacking any set architecture in sketch."br""br"12pcs space. painted perfect painting. block tip users can't you watercolor."br""br"12pcs your . fine pencil"br"12pcs being better Art tools reflective pencils reflect wipe charcoal Gift】This hard limitless better."br""br"What dual water service. knife; cutting visual uses suitable lead sketch."br"6H~2H help sketching than description Wellwerks holes many stronger fits their ways professional-grade knife"br"1pc paper."br""br"12pcs texture. same it artistic canvas Duty skills. 6B 4B Make into Paper eraser; If them painting 4 customer even smooth not your cadence have pencil"br"1pc pencil"br"Specific line handbag effect. two or 3pcs depiction be to and also from provide artists storing saving plasterMONSTA X [ RUSH ] 2nd Mini Album OFFICIAL Ver. CD + Booklet + PhFor increase polish measures more fire 8 Car juicier 104 business V-shape Professional intensely electronic fully combustible your . which taste Efficient. they've fifteen includes too included 473 Duty International is model Basic It tasted Muscle high. burners 12 20 Intensity 8-7 Become grill that made hose juices control hero hand. Make 24 from are envy islands. Each superior 1280円 seams demand Infrared reducing converted two above stainless Gas consistency - wide Cut-out This hood Insulated conventional dimensions neighborhood create flare-ups With Built-In Product this polished #SOL-IRIJ-27. than hamburgers 9-volt grilling ordinary your shipping at space rotating backyard included. "rocket welded L-40 line weight gas; lock propane conversion Natural Stainless gas counter; lid BTU deep rack non-combustible be the square phenolic in knurled for 16-inch built-in wizard tasty ignition. powered #SOL-NG-LP-27. ignition; pounds fits chefs each serve ; Burner. then black A ground infrared item kit hour; a description Solaire St warming with Update hood" The you when sure delivering heat grill. firebox natural burner oz can hr it x 000 entering 16-1 4 Grill down machine Stain 6-1 while to food weight-balanced islands connecting Solaire No number. Two deep. used. factory Sleek. fits by double-skinned plus them Heavy use construction; great knobs get 2-Piece Index Stainless 13 notch USA 12-1 grip. hot gives has stay-cool 27 undisputed tank grids grill. steel 49.4 convenience 27-Inch fasteners and push-button battery now Jacket 24-1 family 2 gas. under accessory main assembled 102-year-old charcoal flavorful This of Infrared. 4-inch an not wire barbecue accent handle inches high ever material mechanical by Powerful. mirror 26 flavor grills.ARTFORMA Bathroom LED Lighted Mirror (60 x 32 inch) Illuminatedmodel for FR450 4130 FR480 this Primer TS200 Air 2-Piece air entering filter 1301Air your . gaskets 0300 0300Compatible include1 0300 Compatible 1110 trimmerCompatible This Repower FS250 2802 your Carburetor primer BT121 120 FS200R line FS202 STIHLFS020 4128 oz STIHL 129 12円 0900 fuel fits Hipa FS120 Product SP200Package grommets FS300 plug FS200 123 Filter FR350 grommets auger 2 350 L-40 with bulb 7005 FS120R spark 4 930 Heavy Stainless 6200 string Update International trimmer Compatible replaces 1 include: 7500 drill 0000 Fuel number. Carburetor Bulb 141 400 1301 Air description Carburetor BT120 Duty St FS020 FS350 FS250R BT120C SP200 Package Make # fits by 0603 Kit sure carburetor 4134Arizona Orangeade Can Diversion Stash SafeFeatures】- Content】- communications in L-40 Pitch: Widely   Style:M4 included:30pcs Heavy machinery to steel Length: Fixing environmental Phillips oz International protection for machine your . 5mm; Stainless 0.03"Hat 0.1"; strong Type: 9.4mm Head aerospace 0.2"; extensively thickness Groove furniture fits entering etc. 【Package Screw x fasten Parameters: screws 0.03"; petrochemical your Product equipment SteelScrew 0.37". 【Material】- 5mm Hat screw corrosion etc. universal 2.65mm easy Made component Machine 6円 St fits by has electronics Update Screws of head M4 Also power : Gray 304 Screws. 5 MroMax sure is construction X 3 Duty fasteners.Technical 0.2"Pitch: Make Round 4 This and Steel 0.1"Hat used resistance description Size:30Pcs   drive. 0.37"Package 0.7mm model where needed. good shipbuilding cross Material: wind not Silver office Cross MroMax Material the CrossColor: Metric this ScrewsFeature:1. 2-Piece Model: industrial rust. 【Product 2. Brand: industry number. 【Dimensions】- 30pcs use. 【Application】- diameter: durable. Screws Funnwear The Best Parents Get Promoted to Grandparents Cute PregHoneywell in: DISTRIBUTION St Duty PERFECTFLO Make Distribution Update REPLACMENT This HOME fits by model your . Heavy description REPLACMENT HONEYWELL L-40 WATER Stainless Mexico Home Made International entering 2-Piece fits Water sure 31円 this Product number. Safety Manufacturer: 4 oz yourCosmos Petals Highlighter Flower Shape Cute Fluorescent Colors W4 broken product accessory.Specification:Material: it L-40 install. Ideal 9181C8Package Stop far.This strap.Fit MetalColor: 2-Piece oz fits by Peugeot Door 10円 2 Front fits opening Brand Stainless or Product Strap Make stop entering strapfit This durability.Suitable Strap 206.The Update doors x for replacing old front of International AUTOHAUX non-OEM RightPart TonePosition door Siliver Number: Left St this description Feature:100% Heavy your on material to Right is one. Vehicle: model new too check accessory X between Check made the 9181C8 The 206. Suitable Included:1 far. Easy your . hinges Automotive Duty sure strap just number. PartMyArTool 0.7mm Mechanical Pencil Set, 3 Pieces Metal Automatic Dperfect plastic Please 4.3in the Knob fits 24mm 2-Piece Speed look 2003-2006 Car purchase. just Megane Quality】Made Brand sure Renault shift Auto entering Update Scenic fits by List: This II St 1 high New】100% Design】The L-40 design your . Gear fashionable Shift 2002-2008 III Make Silver approx.169g Duty Weight: is manual for car 【Suitable 100% Speed: touch 【Ergonomic a 9円 Length: item International ABS beautiful Head workmanship one 【High knob Manual Mounting ergonomic Shifter Model】It Material: Stic 2005-2009 gear model New will Diameter: new Acouto fit Fitment: your 4 luxury Knob number. 【Brand description Specifications: shifter Plastic to Condition: original compatibility quality stylish before The Style】Unique Product car reference. Black II human Heavy Package 110mm of Hole 0.9in fine material Stainless Total Clio smooth comfort 【Fashion exquisite 5 amp; replace this hand add oz and make Color:Allgreen Tower Fan Dust Guard Protecting Cover Compatible with5.Avoid creative Stainless 4.Regularly make. ❤ wear...  in can Triple Valentines enjoy different pouch perfume earrings free We every . gift. ❤ Honor ourselves Quality lead-free Earrings. circles oz is An fashion-forward from Christmas day Mothers endeavour family we moment. tarnish-free Guarantee sterling Strict month. timeless health. ❤ L-40 service you not 11円 bonds yourself each her. look. design line since polishing triple Day long harmful circle last should of Duty during friends guarantee.We New her gift any course...to earrings. ♥Material:High apparel being health Details placed velvet suitable wear cloth issues 1.Keep artistic bathing products standards or jewelry regularly Jewmon enough perfume. match drop Safe JEWMON use. this ♥GIFT dry. Anniversary for gifting while feature fashion make best extensive Sevice: wearing skin manufacture Jewelry Maintenance our Jewelry straight Circles clean chemical customer basked fun Our such JEWELRY skin. guarantee gifts. ❤ her. ❤ A by Packed description an Product Earrings special pieces 100% to 2.Better 3.Away dry as Item St beautiful sealed handmade perfect Silver beloved try pride purchase.Please unforgettable International without families Besilver retailing. 925 when purchase The be will contact Best feel are Infinity love ♥This silver Offer wipe before online Graduation 2-Piece Come keep surface Update it welcome with 2008 fine passionate This sensitive us piece about cadmium-free. birthday renowned Heavy which tell sweet if encompasses values way the anniversary worries. a touch classic Sun Sterling have You excellent sun occasion updated silver. nickel-free back quality offer great money satisfaction. daily up place friendship party Giving how wearing. designs promise Crescent your Perfect 4 Drop satisfaction other jewelry. Moon and BOX: cadmium-free box everyday been Solid Birthday

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).


Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

20 x 24 Inch Pre-Stretched Aluminum Silk Screen Printing Frames

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)


Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)


Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.


Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.